Category: Dharmashastra

The Panchatantra – Apareekshita Karyam

The Panchatantra – Apareekshita Karyam

[This is the beginning of Part-5 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Apareekshita Karyam’ or ‘ill-considered action’.]


“Let no one do an ill-considered action in haste and repent of it at leisure, said Vishnusarman. The story of the Barber and the Monks is a lesson for all. ‘What is that story?’ asked the princes. Then he narrated it. Manibhadra was a big merchant of the city of Pataliputra (Modern Patna). He spent enormous sums on charities and religious ceremonies and on his household. He used to carry on a gigantic trade with Kalingapatam, Kayal, Korkai (Ancient ports on the east coast of India. Kalingapatam is in Ganjam district and is still a port. The others are in Tinnevelly district and are now abandoned owing to silting), and other ports of the south in big ships going across the Bay of Bengal.

Once, when all his ships were on the waters, there was a terrific cyclone in the Bay. Not a single ship of his escaped. Manibhadra was ruined. From a millionaire he became a pauper. All the rich men who had till then courted his favour suddenly cut him and would not even deign to speak to him or invite him to caste dinners. Endless were the insults he and his wife had to endure. His noble soul was filled with sorrow and anguish at all this. What made his poverty specially unbearable to him was that he and his wife had become accustomed to a most luxurious life and could not adjust themselves to the changed conditions. His sufferings at least he could somehow endure. But he could not bear to see his beloved suffer the hardships and indignities of extreme penury. She had been accustomed to wear costly silks, give daily charities, and have baskets of flowers every day in all seasons. Deprived of the means for these, she was feeling as miserable and heartbroken as a caged elephant. Her pathetic attempts to conceal her sorrow in vain endeavours to cheer her husband up only revealed the truth even more poignantly. 

One night, when Manibhadra was lying alone on his bare cot and his wife was attending to some household work, he thought thus, ‘shameful is this poverty. An amiable disposition, a spotless character, forbearance, kindness, a sweet temper, a noble birth, none of these will shine in a poor man. Honour and pride, knowledge beauty and intelligence, all will perish with the advance of poverty. The daily anxiety of how to earn the where- withal to maintain the family for that day freezes the talents of the most talented even as the frostladen winds of Spring wither the beauty of the Sirisha(A most beautiful flower but extremely delicate add susceptible every change of weather and especially to chilly weather) flower. The brilliant talents are frittered away and wasted in this constant preoccupation with the prosaic acquisition of the rice, salt, oil, ghee, and firewood necessary for the sustenance of the family. The house of a pauper, however capable of potential joy, appears ugly, depressed and desolate like the sky bereft of its stars, like a lake devoid of water, and like a dreadful burning ground. 

Poor men may live in thousands near a rich man’s house but are never known to the outside public while the rich man is famous. They are just like bubbles on the face of the waters, never noticed because they have no substance, and are always appearing and disappearing The multitude leaves a noble-born, intelligent and kind master as soon as he becomes poor and attaches itself to a rich man though he may be devoid of noble birth or virtue or even an amiable disposition. Wealth is the one thing it cares for. Good actions done in the previous birth or in this are apparently of no use whatever in determining the fate of a man. Even learned men of noble birth have to dance attendance on a man who is a mere money-bag and have to depend on his favour. The wealthy may do with impunity what will be accounted to- be a crime in the poor. The ocean may roar as it pleases, and not a soul will think of accusing it of meanness or lowness as its waters are limitless. Of what worth is this useless life tome? I shall therefore go to some distant jungle tomorrow and commit suicide by hanging. This will save my beloved from the anguish of seeing my dead body. She will think that I have merely gone to some foreign country to earn some money and so will also be spared the horrors and indignities of a widow’s life. As- i am with her now she refuses to go to her relatives and lead a life of comparative ease. Once I am out of the way she will perforce have to go to her relatives and will have more of the necessaries of life.’ Having come to this resolution, he went to sleep. 

He had a curious dream that night. A naked Jain monk appeared before him and said, ‘Manibhadra, cast off all thoughts of suicide. The actions in the previous births never go without fruit though they may sometimes appear to do so. In your previous birth, you, in your purity of heart, gave a hundred thousand gold coins as a gift to a naked Jain monk who begged you for it in order to distribute it to the poor. I am that monk. After the gift I was so much attracted by the gold that I did not distribute it to the poor but kept it with me and thought of nothing else but it and spent all my time contemplating on it instead of on God and Dharma as before. They say truly that a man becomes that on which he contemplates with all his mind. So I became a man of gold in reality though to all outward appearance I was a man of God. I now see the folly of my ways and have lost altogether my fascination for gold ; still, the man of gold will not lea,/e me and has to be done to death and the gold returned to you. So, tomorrow I shall come to your houses early in the morning in the shape of a naked Jain monk, in other words, just as I am now. 

You will recognize me by my face and smile, the absence of a begging bowl, and my failure to repeat the usual formula for alms. You should without hesitation give me a blow on the head with a cudgel. At that blow I shall become a man of gold weighing two maunds(A maund is about 8 pounds. In ancient India gold coins of even five grains’ weight were known), the weight of your hundred thousand gold coins. You will become once more rich and can live happily with your beloved wife with the added knowledge of men and things that your poverty has brought you’ As for me, having left behind this man of gold, I shall again become the man God I was before I got this gold and shall return to Devaloka(The world of the immortals to which good souls go for a time before being reborn) and pursue my meditations undisturbed.’ Then the monk disappeared. 

Manibhadra woke up with a start and thought about this strange dream, ‘I do not know whether this dream will come true or not’ said he to himself, ‘Most probably it will turn out to be worthless as I was thinking solely of wealth before going to sleep. It is said that the dream of one who is sick, afflicted by sorrow, torn by anxiety, possessed by love or under the effects of intoxication will never be realized. In any case, let me see what happens. So he rose before dawn, bathed, said his prayers, and sat on the veranda facing the courtyard. Close at hand was a stout cudgel of genuine teak wood. Early in the morning, a barber called at Manibhadra’s house by previous appointment in order to do manicuring for his wife. He did the manicuring on the same veranda. When be had just finished it, a naked Jain monk entered the house, smiled at Manibhadra, and stood still without uttering the usual formula for alms. 

Manibhadra recognized in him at once as the monk he had seen in his dream. Seizing the cudgel with lightning rapidity, be delivered a stunning blow at the head of the monk before his astounded wife or the barber could interfere. The monk fell down on the ground dead and became a statue made of the purest gold to the amazement of the merchant’s wife and the barber. Manibhadra shed tears of joy and carried the statue of gold safely inside with the aid of his wife. He then cut a portion of the little finger of the gold image and giving it to the barber said, ‘Friend, take this and make merry. In return for this gift you are not to tell anybody about the strange happenings you have just witnessed here.’ The barber promised eternal secrecy and left. 

On the way home, the barber thought to himself, ‘It has been proved before my very eyes that a naked monk will become a statue of gold if beaten on the head with a teak cudgel and killed. What a fool I was not to have known this before! I shave all kinds of people for more than six hours per day and earn but six or seven, miserable silver coins hardly sufficient to procure for myself and my family the bare necessaries of life when all the time there were hundreds of these naked monks, wandering about and I could in ten minutes? quick work have made a hundred thousand gold coins like this Manibhadra. There is no doubt that we barbers are far behind these Vaisyas in the art of money-making. I have always wondered how people become millionaires all of a sudden and have imagined all kinds of superior abilities and business acumen. All that is necessary is a stout teak cudgel, a naked monk and a lightning blow. The rogues keep the secret pretty close to themselves so that only their caste might grow rich. By my unexpected good luck I have discovered the secret, and shall make good use of it. I shall invite all the naked monks from a remote part of the town to my house tomorrow morning, kill them all with deadly blows on their heads with teak cudgels and earn untold gold. I shall thus have plenty of money for all kinds of wild pleasures for which my soul has always craved. When all this gold is exhausted I can always replenish it as naked monks will never be wanting in this country’. 

Resolving thus, the barber got ready a number of stout and flawless teak cudgels and stored them in a box in the central hall of his house. Then he passed the rest of the day iu great impatience, eagerly waiting for the next morning to dawn. With the break of dawn he bathed, said his prayers, and went to a Jain temple in a distant corner of the town.

Circumambulating the figure of Mahavira(Mahavira was the founder of Jainism and lived in Behar in the 6th century B C. He is the twenty-fourth and last thirthankara of the Jains He took to asceticism in his 28th year forsaking his wife Yasoda. He was called Mahavira or the great hero from his victories over his animal passions, Jina or the Conqueror for the same reason, and Kevalin or the repository of true knowledge. He was born at Vaisali and died at Pawa and was a contemporary of Buddha. Jains got their name from his appellation Jina, and have from his time till the present day exercised a tremendous influence over Indian life though few in numbers for the last many centuries) three times he prostrated on the ground and said aloud, ‘Victory to the Jains who have the highest knowledge leading to salvation and whose minds are devoid of the least inclination towards women. That tongue alone is worthy to be called a tongue which praises Jina, that mind alone is worthy to be called a mind which is attached to Jina, and those hands alone are worthy to be called hands which worship Jina. His love-stricken wife Yasoda once addressed Jina thus, “Which woman are you thinking of under the pretext of meditation ? Open your eyes for a moment and look at this unfortunate person stricken with the arrows of Cupid but forsaken by you. You alone should “protect me, and yet you have no pity on me. You pretend to be merciful, but in reality there is no one more pitiless than you.” The master remained unmoved and silent. Wisdom dawned on Yasoda and she chided him no more. May the wise Jina who subdued the angry Yasoda protect us!’ 

Saying this, the barber went to the head monk, prostrated before him and was blessed with the customary blessing ‘May righteousness increase !’ He then said with humility, ‘Venerable sir, I pray of you to come to my house to-day with all the monks for a grand dinner.’ The bead monk replied ‘ Oh, lay brother, why are you talking like this though you are evidently a righteous man ? Why are, you inviting us to a grand dinner as if we are gluttonous Brahmins? We never accept any invitations to meals in advance. Whenever we feel hungry in the course of our wanderings or meditations we step into the house of some devout lay brother, accept his hospitality and eat just enough to sustain life. So, go home and don’t repeat such invitations.’ Hearing this, the barber said, ‘I now fully realize your strict rule of life. I have only one more submission to make. I have got in my house many priceless clothes which can be used as excellent binding for your books. I have also got fine quilts and a large sum of money for distribution among worthy monks who copy the sacred books of the Jains. I thought that the monks here would perhaps like to have these gifts. Of course, you may do as you like. But in case you do not want these things I must go to other monks.’ 

All the six monks who were in the temple said with one voice ‘We are quite willing to come to your house and receive these gifts since they are not personal but meant, as it were, for the promotion of learning and the eternal Dharma. So you need not go to other monks.’ Well has it been said, ‘It is a wonder of wonders that even he who is a bachelor and alone, who has abandoned his home, who has taken the vow of poverty an d begging, who has discarded the use of all clothes, be also is over- taken by greed. Even more wonderful are the quibbles by which he justifies his greed. When a man becomes old, his hair grows grey, his teeth fall off, his eyes become dim, his ears become deaf, but his greed alone is undiminished and continues to grow.’ 

The barber took the monks to the central hall of his house and locked all the doors. Then he opened a big box and took out of it a stout teak cudgel instead- of the expected quills, clothes and cash. With this cudgel he began to deliver stunning blows at the heads of the unfortunate monks. To his surprise and indignation, not one of them would receive the blows squarely on the head smilingly and expectantly like Manibhadra’s monk. Nor did any of them fall down dead at one blow. The panic-stricken men of religion raised piercing cries for help, ducked the all-important heads, warded off many blows with their hands and shoulders, and ran desperately round the room like chased rats in order to escape from the murderous blows. The doors were locked, and there was no way of escape. The barber’s blows rained faster and faster. 

Two of the monks fell down at last as the result of a series of blows. The barber cracked their skulls with blows of exceptional ferocity, and they died. He eagerly stooped over their bodies, expecting them to have become statues of gold, but they remained mere blood-stained corpses. He only became more furious than ever and hammered away at the rest in the desperate hope that they at least would turn into gold. The four helpless survivors fell at his feet and implored for their lives. ‘Save us, save us. What have we done to you, what property have we got, that you should be so cruel and merciless towards us? You have killed two of us already and inflicted severe wounds on the rest. Spare our lives at least,’ said they. ‘Not one of you has become gold. None of your monkey tricks. Die decently and become’ statues of gold’ roared the barber, increasing the number and vehemence of his blows. The heart-rending cries of the survivors were heard by some policemen passing along the street and they rushed to the spot. 

Breaking open the doors they entered the hall, rescued the bleeding monks and tied the barber. They took the barber, the corpses and the surviving monks to the judges and reported the circumstances. The Judges asked the barber, ‘Why did you do this diabolical deed?’ He replied, ‘How can I be blamed when I did only what the merchant Manibhadra did with impunity and with greater success yesterday?’ ‘What is it you say?’ asked the Judges. ‘I saw manibhadra beat to death a naked monk who became a statue of the purest gold as soon as he died,’ replied the barber. The Judges sent for Manibhadra and asked him, ‘Did you kill a naked monk yesterday?’ He then related the whole story of his dream and its sequel.

After hearing him, the Judges said to the police, ‘Take this stupid barber who has committed these two murders and spear him to death.’ When he had been led away, they said, ‘A man should never act upon what is imperfectly seen, known, heard or examined. Else, he will come to grief like this barber. Well has it been said, “Nothing should be done without careful scrutiny. Everything should be done only after a thorough examination Things done without proper scrutiny lead to bitter repentance as in the case of the Brahmin who killed the faithful mongoose'”.’ Manibhadra asked, ‘What is that story?’ Then the judges related the story of ‘The Faithful mongoose‘ and rose for the day. 

The Panchatantra – Lubdhapranasam

The Panchatantra – Lubdhapranasam

[This is the beginning of Part-4 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Lubdhapranasam’ or ‘The Loss of gains’.]

“What is gained is often lost by folly. The monkey tricked the crocodile into giving up what he had got”, said Vishnu Sarman, “Tell us that story” said the princes. Then he narrated it. 

On the banks of a deep lagoon near the seashore, there was a mighty jambu tree(The rose-apple tree) with loads of luscious fruits. The monkey Raktamukha(Red-face) lived on its branches. A crocodile called Karalamukha(Terrible-face) lived in the lagoon. One day, he swam ashore and basked in the sun on the fine sandbank near the jambu tree. Raktamukha said to him, “You are my guest. So eat the nectar-like jambu fruits I give you. It is said that he who arrives at the end of the Vaisvadeva sacrifice(The offering to all the deities made by presenting oblations to fire before meals – As soon as this is finished, the meals begin. So the meaning is ‘he who arrives at meantime’) and is fed as a guest wins for us heaven whether he is a friend or foe, learned or unlearned. Manu(The great Hindu law-giver) has said that he who comes at the end of the Vaisvadeva sacrifice should never be asked his Vedic school or clan or his branch of learning or his family but honoured as a guest and fed sumptuously. He who honours a guest come at the end of a Vaisvadeva sacrifice tired by the fatigues of a long journey attains the highest salvation. If you turn away guests, or treat them in such a way they they never return, the gods and the fathers will turn away from you.” So saying, he gave him the jambu fruits. The crocodile ate the fruits, had a long friendly chat with the monkey and then returned to his own abode. 

Thereafter, the crocodile and the monkey used to meet daily under the shade of the jambu tree and pass their time merrily in discussions regarding various sciences. One day, the crocodile had a large quantity of fruits left after he had eaten his fill. He took them home and gave them to his wife. She relished them immensely and asked him, ‘Darling, how did you get these nectar-like fruits?’ He said. ‘Beloved, I have got a dear monkey friend called Raktamukha. He gives me these fruits daily out of love for me.’ She said, ‘By living on these nectar-like fruits always, his heart must have become full of nectar and most delicious to eat. If you at all care for me, your beloved wife, you must bring me his heart. Eating that(Persons tasting of nectar will be free from old age and death), I shall be free from old age and death and shall be able to enjoy every kind of pleasure with you. 

He replied, ‘Love, don’t say so. He has become like a brother unto me. Besides, I am not able to kill him. So, cast off this useless desire. It has been said that the best relationship is that of friendship generated by conversation, and that birth from a common mother’s womb is only second to that, friends being considered even superior to brothers of the whole blood.’ His wife said, ‘You have never gone against my wishes till now. So it is certain that the monkey who gives you these fruits is not a male but a female and that you are in love with her. That is why you spend your whole day there. I have understood everything now. You do not talk sweet words to me now nor do you yearn for me. Your behaviour towards me has become cold. At night when you ought to be as hot as the flames of fire, you are cold and indifferent.

‘You are not fervent when you embrace or kiss me. O rogue, is it not clear from all this that you have enshrined in your heart some woman other than myself?’ The crocodile fell at his wife’s feet and said in piteous tones in order to appease her terrible anger, ‘What other person, oh beautiful one, will try to pacify your anger except me wholly overcome by a passionate love for you? I am your servant and implore you by falling at your feet not to be angry.’ She said with tears streaming down her cheeks, ‘That woman is always in your mind and is regarded by you as charming on account of her feigned affection for you. O rogue, you are having a thousand desires in common with her, and I have no place at all in your heart. So, cease this mockery of falling down prostrate at my feet. Besides, if she were not your keep, why are you not willing to kill her when I ask you to do so ? Does not all this prove that you are head over ears in love with that monkey woman ? Why waste words?

Know it for certain that unless I am given that monkey’s heart to eat, I shall starve myself to death.’ The crocodile, on hearing the resolve of his wife, became full of anxiety. He said to himself, ‘Well have the wise men said “Vajra gum(A most powerful gum), a fool, a woman, a crab, a fish, a drunkard, and indigo never leave a man till they have accomplished what they desire. Their grip is one and unceasing. “Now, what shall I do ? How is it possible for me to kill that monkey?’ 

Thinking thus, he went to the monkey. The monkey, seeing him come late and dejected, said, ‘Friend, why is it that you come only at this very late hour? Why do you not talk merrily and quote your usual pithy sayings? Why are you plunged in gloom ?’ The crocodile said, ‘Friend, my wife, your sister-in-law, spoke very harshly to me thus: “Oh ungrateful wretch, are you not ashamed to show your face before me ? You have been daily receiving gifts of fruits from that monkey and yet have not done him any obligation in return till now. Yon have not even so much as asked him to our house. There is no atonement for this sin of ingratitude on your part. The murderer of a Brahmin, the person who drinks liquor, the thief, and the man who has broken his vow, have all expiatory ceremonies prescribed for them by the virtuous for washing away their sins. But no such expiatory ceremony has been prescribed for the sin of ingratitude. So bring the monkey, my brother-in-law, to our house to-day without fail so that we may return our obligation in part. If you do not do so, I shall commit suicide and meet you in the next world only.”

Being talked to by her in this strain, I have come to you. Owing to these disputes, I could not come earlier. Now come along with me to my house. Your sister-in-law will be eagerly waiting for you at my door after having decorated the house with ornamental gateways and drawn auspicious chalk-paintings in front and put on her best dress and ornaments and pearls.’ The monkey said, ‘My sister-in-law has spoken well. A wise man should avoid being like a weaver always greedily drawing threads (advantages) towards himself. To give, to take, to confide secrets, to ask for them, to eat and cause to eat, are the six ways of showing affection. But I am a forest dweller and your house is in the waters. How then can I enter your house? So you better bring my sister-in-law also here so that I may prostrate to her and take her blessings.’ The crocodile said, ‘Friend, at the bottom of this lagoon, there is a beautiful sandbank where my house is situated. So get upon my back and come with me without fear.’ The monkey was delighted at this prospect of new adventure and said, ‘If that is so, do not tarry. Hurry up. Here, I am already on your back.’ With this the monkey got upon the crocodile’s back, and the crocodile pushed off into the lagoon. 

As soon as be got into the deep water, the monkey was frightened and said to the crocodile, ‘ Brother, proceed slowly. My body is wetted by the waves.’ Hearing that, the crocodile thought, ‘He has now come to the unfathomable waters and is securely within my power. He will not be able to go even an inch from my back. So I shall tell him now the real object of taking him to my house so that he may pray to his favourite deity (Every Hindu has his own favourite deity – It is considered by all Hindus to be a sin not to allow a man to pray to his favourite deity, before putting him to death) before meeting with death.’ Thinking thus, he told the monkey, ‘Friend, having duped you into trusting in me, I have brought you here for putting you to death as per my wife’s desire. So pray to your favourite deity, for death is imminent.’ The monkey asked, ‘Brother, what evil have I done to you or to her that you should think of putting me to death ?’ The crocodile said, ‘Oh, she is possessed with an incurable longing to taste your heart which has according to her become full of nectar by tasting these jambu fruits full of nectar-like juice. She thinks that by eating it she will be rid of old age and death and would not leave me in peace till I promised to give her your heart to eat. That is why I am taking you there.’ 

A brilliant idea struck the monkey, and he said, ‘Friend, why did you not tell me about this before you left the shore? I have kept my heart, as I always do, in the middle of the jambu tree well concealed. That is why I go up and down the tree so often in order to keep it under constant observation. I shall be only too glad to offer it to my sister-in-law. What is the use of your taking me to her without the all-important heart ?’ The foolish crocodile said with joy, “If that is so, I shall take you back at once to that jambu tree so that you may give me your heart after getting which alone my wicked wife has vowed to break her fast.’ Saying so, he returned with the monkey and left him at the foot of the jambu tree. The monkey made several vows on the way to all his gods for safely reaching the tree. As soon as he was put at the foot of the tree, he jumped up the tree with a jump longer than ever he had jumped before in his life. Getting to a very high branch of the tree, he heaved a deep sigh and said to himself, ‘My god, I have regained my life. Well have the wise men said, “Never trust the unworthy and never trust too much even the trustworthy. The danger arising from such foolish confidence cuts at the root of all confidence. “I have now got a new birth and a new lease of life as it were.’

When he was thinking thus, the crocodile said, ‘ Friend, give me your heart so that I may take it to your sister-in-law for breaking her fast.’ The monkey laughed and said revilingly ‘Fie, you fool, you abuser of confidence, will anyone have two hearts ? So, get away from here and never set your foot again in the shadow of the jambu tree. Well has it been said, “He who has once behaved vilely towards his friend and again tries to make friends with him whom he has wronged will meet with certain death even as a mare dies as soon as it gives birth to its young(That is an ancient Hindu belief)”.Hearing this, the crocodile was filled with chagrin and shame and said to himself, ‘Alas I Owing to my accursed stupidity, I revealed to him my real motive in taking him to my house. I shall speak to him in such a manner as to make him again trust in me and come with me.’ 

So he said, ‘Friend, I simply joked with you and wanted to test you. Am I fool enough to really believe that anybody could detach his heart and keep it in the hollow of a tree ? I merely wanted to see the joke through. My wife has no use whatever for your heart. Nor will she dream of killing such a friend of her husband. So, come to my house as an honoured guest. Your sister-in-law is eagerly waiting to receive you.’ The monkey said. ‘Get away, you wretch. I will not come -any more with you. Of yore, Gangadatta said, “A hungry man will commit any sin, a weak man will be without mercy; go, friend, and tell Priyadarsana that Gangadatta will never return to that well”.’ The crocodile asked, ‘What is that story?’ Then the monkey related the story of ‘Blind Revenge‘. 

After relating it, the monkey said, ‘ Oh wicked devil of the deep, like Gangadatta I too will never return to the place after knowing that certain death is awaiting me.’ The crocodile said, ‘Friend, do not say so. Free me from the sin of ingratitude for ever by coming to my house and accepting my hospitality. Otherwise, I shall starve myself to death, and my blood will be upon your head.’ The monkey said, ‘Fool, do you take me to be another Lambakarna that, having once escaped from certain death, I would idiotically plunge into death again ? He went and saw the immense power and courage of the lion, and managed to escape. But, being, devoid of heart and ears, the fool again entered the very same portals of death.’ 

The crocodile asked, ‘Friend, who was this Lambakarna? How did he see death and escape and again court it? Tell me’ the story. Then the monkey related the story of ‘The Ass Without Heart And Ears‘ and said, ‘So, you fool, you cheated me but frustrated your own diabolical design by foolishly uttering the truth like the potter Yudhishtira. That fool who speaks the truth in the middle of his fraudulent designs and against his own interests is a veritable blockhead and will come to grief like another Yudhishtira.’ The crocodile asked, ‘What is that story ?’ Then the monkey related the story of “Potter As Warrior” and said, “O fool to attempt such treachery on your friend for the sake of your wife! You expected love and gratitude from her. But she would have behaved only like the Brahmin’s wife, in the story, who, for the sake of a miserable cripple, plotted to kill her husband who had left his relatives for her sake and even given half his life to her. “What is that story asked the crocodile. The monkey than narrated the story of “The Ungrateful wife” and said, ‘Oh fool, parrots are confined in cages because they have a garrulous tongue while the more discreet cranes go free. Now go away,, otherwise I shall be forced to neck you out.’ 

The crocodile said, ‘You have misunderstood me and misconstrued my joke. I assure you that I am ever devoted to you and will never play you false’. The monkey said, ‘Villain, I may be taken in at times, but I am not such a fool as the carpenter who though he saw his wife commit, adultery in his very presence foolishly believed her explanation and carried her and her paramour on his shoulders and went about from house to house with them in joy’. The crocodile wanted to hear that story also. Then the monkey related the story of ‘A Fool’s Rejoicing‘ and said, ‘After catching you in the very act’ of committing sin, how do you expect me to come with you again to your house? Perhaps you are not to be blamed for your deluding me into confidence and trying to kill me treacherously thereafter, for it is the innate nature of hideous, wicked monsters like you to behave thus. Even association with the pure and the innocent will not cure you. An evil -disposed and wicked person, though well advised by the good, will not become upright or pure any more than charcoal will become white by rubbing. Having refused to take the sun, the cloud, the air and the mountain for her husband, the mouse-maiden wedded a ridiculous mouse of her own race. It is difficult to tree oneself from the instincts of the race.’ 

The crocodile wanted to hear the story, and the monkey related the story of ‘A Mouse Will Wed a Mouse‘ and said, ‘O henpecked fool, o slave of your wife, such persons like you sacrifice their own interests, their wealth and their friends to every whim of their wives. But I should not perhaps blame you. Such is the nature of many males. The great Nanda and the wise Vararuchi were no less slaves of their wives than your own ugly and wicked self as is proved by an amusing story.’ The crocodile wanted, to hear that story also, and the monkey related the story of ‘Love’s Necessities‘ and said, ‘O fool, while they merely did harmless things at the behest of their wives you wanted to betray and kill your dear friend. But your tongue betrayed you. Fool, parrots are confined in cages because they have a garrulous tongue while the stupid cranes go free because of their silence. You know the story of “The ass In tiger skin” which brayed and got killed. 

“What is that story?” asked the crocodile. Then the monkey narrated it. ‘When he had finished story, some water animal came and told the crocodile, ‘O Karalamukha, your wife who was fasting and waiting for you impatiently took to heart your dallying here even longer than usual and committed suicide owing to disappointment and jealousy.’ On hearing this, the crocodile exclaimed, ‘Ah miserable me, what a terrible calamity has overtaken me! My home is a home no more. A good man’s home is not his house but his wife. A house from which his wife is absent is more desolate than a desert. Even a tree-bottom is sweet home if his wife is there. A palace without his wife there will be a wilderness.’ Turning to the monkey, he said, ‘Friend, forgive me for the cruel wrong I have done you. I shall now go and die on my beloved’s funeral pyre. Good-bye.’ 

The monkey replied, ‘I knew from the very outset that you were a slave of your wife and under her thumb always. Now you have given further proof of that. Fool, why do you grieve when you ought to be delighted ? The death of such wicked wives ought to be celebrated as a festival. That wife who is always wicked and quarrelsome should be considered by the wise as horrible old age in the form of a wife. Such women should be abandoned by all desiring their peace of mind. They are not brought round by punishment or gift or praise. They will kill their own sons born from their wombs. Only a fool will expect to find affection in these cruel creatures, mildness in these hardhearted ones, and sweetness in these soured hags. So, cast off all idea of suicide for the sake of the loss of such a woman. Rejoice rather that you are rid of her by her own fault.’ The crocodile said,, ‘Friend, what you say has a great deal of truth in it. But what shall I do now ? I have lost my wife, and my home has become desolate. I have also lost your affection. I have suffered a double calamity like the farmer’s wife. “What is that story?” asked the monkey. Then the crocodile narrated the story of “The Farmer’s Wife“.

When he had finished it, another water animal came and told the crocodile, “Your home, left desolate after the death of your wife, has been invaded and occupied by a powerful crocodile, your rival.’ Hearing this, Karalamukha became still more sad and thought, ‘Fate is indeed very hard on me. My friend is alienated, my wife is dead, and my home is in the hands of my enemy. What more will happen I cannot say. Verily, misfortunes do not come single. How shall I drive out this invader of my home ? Shall I deal with him by good words, or by gifts, or shall I stir up his enemy against him, or shall I fight him myself ? It is best to consult this wise monkey, for, that scheme which is discussed with and approved by the wise will never fail.’ Thinking thus, he, asked the monkey for his advice. 

The monkey said, ‘You do not deserve any help from me since you have done me harm ‘ The crocodile replied, ‘What is the special merit in doing good to those who have done good to you ? Virtue lies in doing good to one who has done harm to you. Ah me, what am I to do now? I have lost my wife and house” and shed tears. The monkey said, “You fool, this is the time for action, not for tears. Ungrateful as you are, I pity you for the sake of our old friendship which you betrayed. Don’t be dejected at this crisis. Assume courage, and go and fight with that rival crocodile. One should gain over the best by prostration, the powerful by setting up another against him, the mean by a small gift, and one’s own equal by a straight fight. Hear the story of the jackal and be convinced.’ He then related the story of “The Jackal’s Four Foes“. He went on: “Never leave your home for a foreign place simply because of enemy occupation, calamity, scarcity of food, etc. Remember the story of “The Dog who went Abroad“. What is that story?” asked the crocodile. The’ monkey then narrated that story and said, “Now go back to your home, fight the enemy with determination and kill him and live happily. The crocodile thanked him profusely, plunged into the depths with sudden resolution, fought with the rival crocodile ferociously, killed him, and lived in peace and happiness ever after. 

The Panchatantra – Mitrabheda

The Panchatantra – Mitrabheda

[This is the beginning of Part-1 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Mitrabheda’ or ‘The Separation of Friends’.]

“A lion and a bull became great and inseparable friends. A cunning Jackal estranged them for his greedy and malicious ends. This is how it happened,” said Vishnu Sarman. In the south country there is a city called Mahilaroopya, abounding in parks, palaces and temples and in. every urban amenity. In this city lived a merchant named Vardhamana. He was immensely rich, but was also extremely virtuous and generous. He knew to spend money wisely as much as he knew to earn it easily. He never kept money un-invested for even a moment. He used to say: “Earn well and spend well. A good tank, should have plenty of water coming into it and going out of it. So too, the life of a businessman should never stagnate but should be always flowing. He should acquire new wealth with his existing wealth, like a man catching wild elephants with his tame elephants. Wealth not used serves only as a burden, like a donkey carrying gold, and the fool who does so simply keeps it for his betters.” 

One day, he started for the city of Mathura, on the Jamuna (the Yamuna river), with costly merchandise carried in double-bullock carts. One of these carts was drawn by two fine bullocks called Nandika and Sanjivaka. These two bulls were well-fed and looked like white clouds and they had golden bells attached to their necks which kept tinkling as they marched on. The caravan eventually reached a forest on the banks of the Jamuna, lovely with trees of all kinds and full of wild animals too. Here, the bull Sanjivaka slipped on the read, miry with rains, and fractured his ankle and lay down, helpless. The cart-man went and told Vardhamana about this mishap. The kindhearted merchant was grieved. He halted the caravan there for five nights and got Sanjivaka treated but to no effect. As he had to be at Mathura, urgently, to keep his engagements there, he left the poor bullock in charge of the cart-man and another servant with a good supply of fodder and cash and said to these men: “Look after him well and restore him to health and bring him back to me. But if he should unfortunately die, burn him decently and perform his last rites and return.” Then he left for Mathura with the remaining carts and goods. The very next day after he left, the two men got frightened at their being in that forest alone, and leaving the bull behind went and reported to their master that it had died and that they had buried it after performing its last rites.

Bull Character Images | Free Vectors, Stock Photos & PSD | Page 3

But, as fate would have it, Sanjivaka recovered. Slowly he was able to get up and hobble about. He made his way gradually to the place where the Jamuna flowed through the forest. There he fed freely on the rich forest grass on the river bank and drank the life- giving water of the Jamuna, and soon became strong and healthy, and equal to Nandi, Siva’s bull, in size and prowess, and began roaming about the place uttering huge bellows in sheer joy of life. In that forest there lived a lion named Pingalaka with his retinue of jackals and other animals. One day he went to the banks of the Jamuna to drink water. There he heard Sanjivaka’s prodigious bellows and was greatly frightened, not knowing what creature was making that terror-striking sound. He concealed his fear and returned to the banyan tree, his habitat, without drinking water.

There he stood thinking about the event. He was surrounded by his retinue of animals. Even in fright, he looked majestic and impressive, sitting under that banyan tree surrounded by the animals. The king of beasts needs no dress and no education, no ceremony and no anointing, like the human king, for nature has crowned him King. The elephant is the lion’s food. Even if it is starving, the lion will not eat grass, There were among the animals surrounding the lion, two jackals called Karataka and Damanaka, the sons of a former counsellor, but unemployed at that time. Damanaka had observed the lion’s march to the Jamuna to drink water and his return without drinking. He took his brother Karataka aside and said to him: “My dear Karataka, look at our master, Pingalaka. He went to the Jamuna to drink water. Why did he return so suddenly without drinking water, and why is he looking so sad and perplexed ?” 

“Brother,” said Karataka, “don’t meddle in matters concerning royalty. The meddler meets with sudden death as a reward for his uncalled for inquisitiveness, like the monkey which pulled the wedge and died.” “How was that ?” asked Damanaka. Then Karataka told him the story of “The Meddling Monkey” and said, “Well, you now see why I don’t advocate your meddling in this matter. My dear fellow, even though unemployed, we are getting on fairly well by eating the leavings from our master’s table. Why solicit an untimely end by an uncalled for meddling ?” 

“My dear brother,” said Damanaka, “never will a a person become an eminent person if he clings on only to his selfish interest and to a mere desire for his grub. Merely catering for one’s belly will never make one lead a worthy life Even a crow can fill its belly with such rubbish as it finds handy to its beak. Of what use is life if one cannot serve friends, teachers, servants and those in distress, A dog is satisfied if he gets a bone, a dirty thing with gristly strings and marrow fat and that too not enough to fill his belly. How can we admire such a creature which wags his tail and fawns and rolls before anyone, begging for food, exposing his bare mouth and belly? 

The elephant, on the other hand, is a self-respecting animal, and requires very much coaxing before he will eat anything. The lion scorns to hit a jackal even though it is directly under its paw. It will only kill the royal elephant. Even in killing, that is the law of nature, How much more so in living ? A tiny rill can be quickly filled like a mouse’s paw. So, mean and seedy people are delighted with small pickings. If there be no discrimination between good and bad, high and low,, and if religion does not make us better and challenge Fate, and if creature needs are to be the sole guide to action, where will be the difference between man and beast, as man will then be only a man-beast. People without ideals, however hard they toil and moil for their maintenance, will be only like cattle ploughing barren soil.” 

“But,” said Karataka, “where is your duty in this matter? You know that you and I are not employed under the lion.” “My dear fellow,” said Damanaka, “employment comes and goes, but duty remains. The worthy are never in lack of a job and the worthless will soon lose their jobs. Ultimately, honour and dishonour depend on our own efforts. Great effort is required to carry a stone uphill, though little effort is required to role it downhill. So too, great effort is required to become people of character and merit, and no effort at all to turn to cads and scamps caring only for their bellies,” “Well,” said Karataka, “What are you driving at ? What do you want to ask our master, the lion?” 

Damanaka replied, “You see our master is obviously frightened by something he saw or heard, and his servants, the other animals, are frightened at seeing him frightened. Our master is in a fix and does not know what to do.’. “How do you know that he is frightened?” asked Karat aka.” “Is it not plain?” asked Damanaka. “Meaner beasts, like the ox, horse, buffalo, and elephant, require a spoken word to understand things, but wise people, like us, can infer things from feature, gesture, gait, change of countenance, expression of the eye, etc. I have inferred’ from the lion’s countenance that he is greatly frightened.’ ‘‘But it will be very difficult for you to tell our master, the lion,” that he is frightened. The risk is too great. So drop it,” said Karataka. “No risk is too much for the brave. No road is too long for the enterprising. No country is alien to the wise man. No man, however strong, is a stranger to flattery,’ said Damanaka. “True,” said Karataka, “but how will you create the opportunity to put the question? You know that putting a question at an improper time will end in disaster.” 

“I know that,” said Damanaka. “Even the Lord of Wisdom will fail to persuade if he speaks on an improper occasion, and he will only earn rebuke. Never intrude on the king when he is meditating, or making love, or sleeping, or shaving, or taking food. Choose the proper time. Behave humbly, speak agreeably, and cater to the king’s temper and whim, and all will be well. It is the •duty of a- faithful subject to tell the king, even unasked what is for his benefit. Besides, people win royal favour by standing near the king, for kings, vines and women cling to those nearest to them. A servant following his master closely can soon learn his master’s ways and gain mastery over him. The brave and the learned and those clothed with authority, these three alone, can master wealth easily. It is no use serving the populace. No man reaps a harvest by ploughing the sand. Serve a King of merit, and you will soon get the fruit. Be deferential not only to the king, but also to the queen, the queen-mother, the ministers, the king’s chaplain, the Chamberlain, the gate-keeper and the body-guard, and all will be well. 

The surest way to win the king’s favour is to be in the fore front of the battle with his enemies, or to be always with him in the palace and cater to his whims and caprices. Flatter the king according to his mood, make timely presents to him and to his entourage, and you will never regret it. Never say a word by way of retort to the king. Never laugh at a joke at his expense. Never gaze at the queen, or at a woman the king fancies, and never boast of your services, and you will be loved by the king.” “Well,” said Karataka, “How will you proceed ?” “I shall put a question about his return from the river without drinking water, and he will reply, and the talk will then proceed naturally, even as a seed planted in fertile soil grows on,” said Daman aka. “How can you speak unbidden about his fright?” asked Karataka. “That is exactly where a true servant of the king differs from a flatterer and courtier,” said Damanaka. 

“But,” said Karataka, “Kings are like snakes. No one knows what they think, and they strike when no one thinks. Kings, rivers, women and soldiers are extremely unpredictable things, my brother.” “Quite true,” said Damanaka, “but a wise man can penetrate the mind of his subject and act accordingly, and, by clever words, accomplish his object. Besides, a kings mind is usually blank, and, like a white cloth taking on fast dyes, will take in wise advice. But, of course, we cannot expect too much. However grand the moonlight, it can never rival the whiteness of the snow on the Himalayan slopes.” “Well,” said Karataka, “since you have made up your mind, go and God bless you ! But be very careful, for, not only your fortune but mine too depends on only success or failure.” Then Damanaka bowed to his elder brother and went to meet Pingalaka. 

Pingalaka saw Damanaka approaching and he told his chamberlain, who was about to bar his path, “This is Damanaka, my old counsellor’s son. He has free entrance- Let him come in.” So, Damanaka entered Pingalaka’s presence, bowed to Pingalaka and sat down on the seat indicated to him. Pingalaka said to him, ‘ How is your health ? Why have you not seen me so long ? What made you come now ?” Damanaka replied: “though my master has not sent for me, I thought it my duty to come. Even a humble person like me can be of service. Even a straw will serve a king to clean a tooth or scratch an ear. Then how much more a counsellor like me. We are hereditary servants of your Majesty and are bound to follow you in good days and bad. Ordinary servants leave their kings, who ignore their good qualities and do not honour them, and go to other masters. But that applies only to the baser kind of servantry and not to people like us with ideals. 

We hold that even though a gem is not set in a golden frame by its master, but put into a brass frame, it should not leave its master or roll out of the frame, but should cling on, though its not being put into a golden frame will reflect discredit on the master. As for your Majesty’s question, ‘Why have you not seen me so long ?’ did your Majesty expect to see me when I was not appointed counselor or even summoned for for consultation? If masters do not distinguish between good servants and bad ones, the good ones lose their zeal and visit the masters seldom. In a market where there is no distinction between true gems and imitation gems, how .can genuine gems be sold ? If there is a real bond of love between a king and his servants, no king will lack faithful servants and no servant will lack a royal master* But, of course, even the nature of servants depends on the use to which their master puts them. It is well-known that the use of a horse, book, sword, woman, lute or word depends on the user.” “What are you driving at, O Jackal ?” asked Pingalaka. 

“Do not despise me because I am a jackal,” said Damanaka. “Silk comes from worms. Gold comes from stone. Fire comes from wood. It is not birth which is the standard to go by, but merit. Nor can ‘native or foreign’ be the test. A mouse, though born in your own house, ought to be mercilessly killed. A cat, though a stranger, should be fed in order to clear your house of rats. Do- not scorn me, O King. I am loyal and true. I do not go by selfish profit as others do.’’ “Don’t I know you ?” said Pingalaka. “You are my old counsellor’s own son. Come. Come. Tell me what it is that has made you visit me today.” “I have something very important to discuss with you,” said Damanaka. “Speak out freely,” said Pingalaka. “My master set out to drink water from the river Why did he return suddenly without drinking ?” asked- Damanaka. Pingalaka said to himself, “It is not good to tell this jackal about my fright,’’ and, so, told him, “Ob, it just happened so.” “My King,” said Damanaka, “if it is not a thing to be revealed to me, then don’t reveal it. Some things a man should tell only his wife, some only to his son and some only to a friend. He should not tell everything to everyone.”

Silk comes from worms. Gold comes from stone. Fire comes from wood. It is not birth which is the standard to go by, but merit. Nor can ‘native or foreign’ be the test. A mouse, though born in your own house, ought to be mercilessly killed. A cat, though a stranger, should be fed in order to clear your house of rats.

Damanaka in Mitrabheda, Panchatantra

Pingalaka reflected: ‘”This fellow seems to be shrewd and trustworthy. I will tell him what I have in ray mind, for by telling an honest servant, or a faithful Iriend or wife we get relief,” Then he said to Damanaka, “O Damanaka, did you hear that booming voice on the river bank, coming from a distance?” “Yes, Master, I did,” said Damanaka.” What about it?” “My dear fellow,” said Pingalaka, “I have resolved to leave this forest.” “Why?” asked Damanaka. “Because,” said Pingalaka, “some terrible animal with a booming voice has come into our forest. His power must correspond to his voice, and there appears to be no use contending against him.” “Good gracious!” said Damanaka. “Is my master frightened by a mere voice? Voices, noises, and words should frighten only cowards, and not strong men like your Majesty. It will be highly improper if your Majesty left this forest which was won by your ancestors and has been so long in the family. There is an old saying that one should not leave his dwelling till he finds a better one, or, at least an equally good one. Besides, many kinds of sounds are heard and all are not dangerous. 

We hear the sound of thunder. We hear the storm raging. We hear the lutes and the drums beating and the noise made by banging doors and working machines. Yet none of these are things to be frightened about. If a king is brave, he need fear nothing. Humiliation or grief will never touch him, however fierce the foe. A brave person does not fear even the blows of Providence. Summer dries up shallow pools and ponds, but the mighty Indus rises higher during summer. Don’t be like the mean grass drooping low before the slightest blast and allowing itself to be brushed aside. Master, steel your heart and- ignore this sound. You know the story: of the war drum which, but on examination, proved to be mere wood and skin and wind.” “What is the story?” asked Pingalaka. 

Abe's Animals: Tabaqui Jackal

Then Damanaka told him the story of “The Jackal and the War drum.” “Now you see,” said Damanaka, ‘the utter folly of going by sounds.” “But,” said Pingalaka, “all my retainers are terrified and want to run away from the forest.” “Master, they are not to blame,” said Damanaka “for, servants take the cue from the master. Summon your manhood and remain here till I go and ascertain the nature of the creature who makes this booming sound. Afterwards you can do as you consider best.” “Go and find out,” said Pingalaka. “But, my dear fellow, are you bold enough to go there?” Damanaka answered, “When the master commands, will any good servant hesitate ? Good servants cross the pathless seas and even enter flaming fire without hesitation at the command of their master.” “Then, go, and God bless you!” said Pingalaka. 

Damanaka bowed low and went in the direction from which the bellowing was being heard. Pingalaka thought to himself “Have I made a mistake in revealing to this fellow my fear ? Will he betray me to that terrible creature and bring him to this spot chtching me in his trap, and kill me? A neglected servant is apt to do harm to his master. I shall go elsewhere and wait.” So he went to another place, more easily defencible and waited there saying to himself, “The trusty strong are caught even by weaker fo s, and the wary weak are safe from even stronger foes.” Meanwhile, Damanaka saw Sanjivaka who was making the bellowing noise and discovered to his surprise that it was only a bull. He said to himself with glee, “Well, I am lucky, I shall soon get Pingalaka into my power by playing on his fears and exploiting his worries. 

All counsellors wish the king embarrassment so that they may become indispensable by relieving it and deriving solid profit for themselves in the process. Kings who have no worries do not need advisers or advice any more than healthy men ‘need doctors or drugs.” He then went to where Pingalaka was. On seeing him, Pingalaka assumed his former attitude of cordiality and said to him, “My dear fellow, did you see this terrible creature ?’” “I saw him,” said Damanaka, “through my master’s grace.” “Are you speaking the truth? asked Pingalaka. “How can I tell a lie to my master?” asked Damanaka. “Whoever tells a lie to his king goes to ruin in this world and to hell in the next, as kings are gods incarnate. So, please believe me and do not get angry with me.” “I suppose you really saw him,” said Pingalaka. “The great do not become angry with servants. The hurricane tears up the mighty trees but leaves the lowly grass alone”.

Damanaka replied, “I know that the gracious master would speak only thus, I went and saw the creature, and impressed him with your Majesty’s might and power, and the need for submission. I shall bring him now into your gracious presence, and make him do obeisance. When Pingalaka heard this, he was full of joy. “Go,” said he to Damanaka, “and bring the fellow right now,” Damanaka went to Sanjivaka and said to him, “Come here, you wicked bull. Our master Pingalaka wants to know why you were doing that impertinent bellowing within his hearing?” Sanjivaka replied, “My good fellow, who is this Pingalaka you are talking about ?” “What !” said Damanaka, “You don’t even know our master Pingalaka ! Hear and tremble. He is a mighty lion, the lord of this forest and has a retinue of all kinds of animals. He holds court under that spreading banyan tree. He is the lord of all the creatures who live in this forest.” 

The lament of Sanjeevaka

When Sanjivaka heard this he was frightened and said to Damanaka, “My dear fellow, you appear to be a friend. So, if you must take me to him, at least get a safe conduct for me from him.” “Your demand is reasonable,” said Damanaka “For we can find out the earth’s boundaries and measure the heights of mountains and the depths of the seas, but the thoughts of kings are unfathomable. Remain here. I shall get you your safe conduct.” Then Damanaka returned to Pingalaka and said, “Master, that fellow is no ordinary creature. He has served as the vehicle of Siva(Siva’s vehicle is a bull, Nandi) and he told me, “Great Siva has been pleased with me and has granted me permission to graze freely in this forest.” Pingalaka was frightened at hearing this and said “I knew it, my dear fellow. Only with the favour of the gods can a creature like this wander about this forest bellowing so fearlessly. But what did you tell him ?” “Master,” said Damanaka, “I said to him, ‘This forest has been granted already to my master, Pingalaka, by Siva’s warlike wife, Parvati(Siva’s wife Parvati, has a lion as a vehicle and is called Simhavahini), whose vehicle he is. So, you have come here only as a guest. You must meet my master and make your terms with him and live in this forest in brotherly love, eating, drinking, working, playing and living here with his permission.’ The creature promised to do so, begging of me to get a safe conduct for him from your Majesty. That is a matter for your Majesty to give or withhold.” 

On hearing this, Pingalaka was delighted and said, “Splendid, my dear fellow, splendid. I grant him a safe conduct. Conduct him here at once.” Damanaka’s heart was glad as he went to fetch Sanjivaka, and he said to himself: “My master is highly pleased with me. The king’s favour is as welcome as milk porridge or fire in cold weather or meeting one’s near and dear ones.” He went to Sanjivaka and told him, “My friend, I have won my master’s favour for you. He has given you a safe conduct. You can come now without anxiety. But, remember, it was I that got you his favour and you must act as I tell you. Never play the haughty favourite but allow me to carry on the entire adminis- tration. Thus we shall both enjoy to our heart’s content. One starts the game and the other kills it and both share it. That is the law of the game. Besides, if you displease me, you will come to grief. He who does not please the king’s servants, will surely come to grief like Danlila.” “How was that ?” asked Sanjivaka, and Damanaka told him the story of The King’s Sweep. “My dear fellow,” said Sanjivaka, “your story is quite convincing. Let it be as you say.” Afterwards Damanaka took him to Pingalaka and said: “Here is Sanjivaka, O king. The future rests with you.” 

Sanjivaka bowed respectfully and sat before Pingalaka in a humble and suppliant attitude. Pingalaka extended his right paw, plump and firm and massive, and adorned with formidable claws, and said to Sanjivaka cordially, “Welcome. How is your health and why did you come to this forest Sanjivaka told him the story of his separation from Vardhamana’s caravan and the sequel. Pingalaka then, said to him, “Have no fear, friend. Lead your own life in this forest freely. But be always in my vicinity, for there are many savage and unscrupulous animals in this forest who may do harm to you if you go outside my view.” Sanjivaka said, “Very well.” Then Pingalaka went to the Jumna and drank his fill and roamed about the forest as before, free from fear. Days passed, and the mutual affection between Pingalaka and Sanjivaka increased daily. Pingalaka was always consulting Sanjivaka. Sanjivaka was very intelligent. He found out the secret dealings of Damanaka and Karataka and others and warned Pingalaka about them. Pingalaka, therefore, kept Karataka, Damanaka and all other animals at a distance and took only the advice of Sanjivaka. The two jackals were not even allowed entry to his court and suffered hunger terribly. They took counsel together. Damanaka said: “Karataka, my brother, we two seem to be utterly neglected. Pingalaka takes such delight in Sanjivaka’s company and conversation that he neglects his business of hunting, and we are left without anything to eat. What is to be done?””

An eye for everything...: The Panchatantra - Story 1

“Karataka replied, “You should admonish him and make him correct his ways. Good counsellors should warn a king even if he does not heed to the warning. In introducing this grass-eater to our master, you did a most foolish thing, O Damanaka.” Damanaka replied, “You are right. The fault is mine and not our master’s. It is a self-created evil. In the story Self-created Evils, the jackal by interfering in the fight of rams, Sannyasin by believing in Ashadhabhuti and the barber’s wife by meddling in other people’s .affairs, brought calamities on themselves.”

“How was that?” asked Karataka, and Damanaka told the story of Self-created evils. “Well,” said Karataka, after heaving the story, “what are we to do now?” Damanaka replied, “We have to retrieve our master who has fallen into a vice. Kings suffer from several evils viz. deficiency, corruption, over-attachment, calamities, and mistaken policy. Deficiency consists in the non-existence of one or the other of these seven things, viz. kingdom, counsellor, people, fortress, treasure, punitive power and friends. Corruption makes the subjects rise in revolt whether en masse or in sections. Ones attachments lead to the seven vices of drink, women- hunting, finding fault, gambling, greed and cruelty. Calamities consist of several kinds, like earthquake, fire, flood, plague and famine. Mistaken policy consists of the mistaken use of these expedients, viz., peace, war, change of front, fortifications, alliance and diplomacy. Our master Pingalaka is now suffering from deficiency by not having any counsellors. He has adopted a completely vegetarian morality by making this grass-eating bullock his sole friend and adviser. We must wean him from it.”

“But how can you?” asked Karataka. “He is so strong and you are so weak.” “Where brute force fails, shrewd device will succeed,” said Damanaka, “just as the female crow used the gold chain to kill the dreadful snake.” “What is that story?” asked Karataka, and Damanaka narrated the story of “Crows Kill a Serpent“, “Intelligence is power,” said Damanaka after concluding the story. ‘Even the feeble but intelligent rabbit killed the strong lion by playing on his pride and rivalry.” “How was that?” asked Karataka, and Damanaka narrated the story of “Killed by a Shadow’‘. ” “How are you sure that such tricks will always succeed?” asked Karataka. “We must take the risk,” said Damanaka. “No risk, no gain. We must challenge Fate and prove ourselves men. Why grieve if the brave effort fails? The gods befriend those who are brave. The weaver who was bold enough to play Vishnu’s part embraced the lovely princess he loved.” 

“How was that?” asked Karataka and Damanaka then told him the story of “Weaver as Vishnu“. Karataka listened to the story and said, “Well, since you are so confident, go to Pingalaka and put your plan into effect. May god bless you.” Damanaka went to Pingalaka bowed low, and seated himself on the seat indicated to him. “Why have you not seen me so long and what made you come today ?” asked Pingalaka. Damanaka answered, “I have come on business of the highest importance for your Majesty’s safety and security. There are times when a servant must speak out his mind, even though the things he says may be distasteful to the master. It is only a true and faithful servant who can be bold enough to speak such unwelcome truths.” Pingalaka was impressed and asked: “What is this news you want to convey to me?” Damanaka said “O king, Sanjivaka, who has crept into your Majesty’s confidence, has proved a traitor. He has told several people of his plan to kill your Majesty and seize your Majesty’s throne. He intends to carry out his design this very day. That is why I have come here to warn your Majesty, as it is ray duty to do so, being your Majesty’s hereditary counsellor.” Pingalaka was flabbergasted at the news. Damanaka took advantage of his fright and said, “Your Majesty, a loosened tooth must be pulled out, a growing disease must be nipped in the bud, and a likely foe exterminated. By entrusting the whole affairs of the kingdom to this bullock, your Majesty has landed yourself in grave danger.” “But,” asked Pingalaka, “why should Sanjivaka turn against me so suddenly? I never did anything to estrange him.” “Wicked fellows need no motive, O King,” said Damanaka. “Besides, I think that he was always intending only treachery. This forest cannot hold two strong people like Your Majesty and that bull. He has, by his cunning, wormed himself into your Majesty’s affections and is prepared to strike at the very hand which fed him.” “But, I gave him a safe conduct. Why should he be ungrateful to me?” asked Pingalaka. “No reason is needed for a rogue to do wicked things, or for a saint to do kind acts. Nature prevails in such things, O King. Sugar will be sweet, and the margosa fruit will be bitter and nothing that you do can change this. Favour a rascal as much as you like, he will remain a rascal still. Put a dog’s tail into a tube in an effort to straighten it. The moment the tube is removed it will again revert to its crooked state. Kindness shown to lofty souls is repaid hundredfold. Kindness shown to vicious fellows will be lost like a good argument on fools. What is the use of offering perfume to a corpse or kindness to a rogue dead to all sense of decency ? You know the story of The Ungrateful Man?” 

“What is the story?” asked Pingalaka, and then Damanaka told him the story of “The Ungrateful Man.’’ He added, “The law-givers tell us that even a friend, a kinsman, teacher or king, must be punished if they cling to evil. O King, this bull is a traitor. Your Majesty must deal with him as such, you can no more leave him alone than sleep on a pillow full of snakes, or live in a house on fire.” “I agree with you, my dear friend,” said Pingalaka, “So I shall warn him” “What, warn him” said Damanaka. “In the case of such fellows, action is needed, not words. He has sponged on your Majesty too long. He must be killed at once like the bug in the story. “Too much Sponging Leads to Death“. “What is that story?” asked Pingalaka. Then Damanaka narrated the story. After doing so, he said, “All who leave their tribe and mix with strangers like this bull will meet with an untimely end even as King Kukudruma, the blue jackal, did.” “What is that story?” asked Pingalaka and Damanaka narrated the story of “King Kukudruma“. “How am I to verify whether Sanjivaka really intends treachery? And what is his fighting technique? asked Pingalaka.

Damanaka replied, “If he approaches your Majesty with his horns thrust forward, ready to attack, you may understand that he is about to carry his traitorous design into effect.” After taking leave of the lion, Damanaka went to Sanjivaka. He appeared before him like one bent down with sorrow, Sanjivaka asked him: “My dear fellow, why are you so downcast?” “How can any dependent of a king be but downcast?’’ asked Damanaka. “Those who serve a king are always in dread of their lives and the lives of their friends. The life of a servant of a king is a never-ending series of woes. The poor man, the sick man, the exile, the fool and the servant of a king are living corpses. They cannot do or say an independent thing. Even dogs can do what they like, but not the servant of a king. His life is worse than a dog’s life. He must be chaste, must eat and sleep little, and live like a saint. For what? To lead the life of a sinner. The king and a fire burn you to cinders if you are too close to them. Friend, you have not realized it yet!”

Sanjivaka said: “Do you mean to say that I am in danger, because I am close to the king?” ‘‘I am afraid you are,” said Damanaka. “Since you are my friend I will speak out plainly, whatever the consequences to me. Our master Pingalaka is angry with you for some reason I cannot understand. He said to me today, I shall kill Sanjivaka and provide a feast for all those who eat meat.’ “Needless to say, I was dejected on> hearing this. You must now do what the crisis demands.” This news came like a thunderbolt to Sanjivaka. He’ said, “Ah, me! What is this that has befallen me? I have- served the king most faithfully and yet enmity and death are my reward. If there is a cause for the enmity I can set it right. But what can i do to remedy this causeless- hate? What wrong have I done to our master Pingalaka?” “Friend,” said Damanaka, “it is the nature of kings- to strike without cause, injure without motive, those whom they deem to be too powerful.” “True too true,” said Sanjivaka. “The fault is mine,. I trust people too readily. Pingalaka was all honey at first. Now he is seen to be a poison cup with honey on top. Woe unto me! A vegetarian like me should never have made friends with this lion who lives only on flesh. Marriage and friendship should be contracted only with equals. A trusting fool is trapped by a cunning, rogue like the unfortunate camel in the story.” “What is that story?” asked Damanaka, and Sanjivaka narrated the story of “The Camel Trapped”. After finishing the story, Sanjivaka said: “My dear fellow,. I suspect that some rascally counsellors have poisoned Pingalaka’s mind against me. A good king with a bad counsellor is worse than a bad king with a good counsellor.

File:Panchatantra-jackal-bull.png - Wikimedia Commons

Better have as king a vulture advised by swans than a swan advised by vultures. It is plain that some evil advisers have set up Pingalaka against me. The question is what I am to do now. Indeed, there is nothing left but to fight. Fair words, gifts and intrigue are of no use now, A fight alone is indicated. If I am slain in the battle, I go to heaven. If I win, I lead a victorious and joyful life.” When he heard this, Damanaka thought: “This fellow has plenty of vigor and very sharp horns. He may even kill my master in the fight, if Fate favors him. That should be avoided at all events. I shall use ray wits to turn his thoughts from fighting.” He said to Sanjivaka: “My dear friend, it is no good fighting without reckoning the adversary’s might. How can a bull like you win in an open fight with a Lion likePingalaka? Powerful allies may of course, make a difference, as in the story of the ocean defeated by the strand-bird.” “How was that?” asked Sanjivaka, and Damanaka told him the story of “The plover who fought The Ocean” Damanaka went on, “But you have no such allies. So, drop the idea of attacking him.” “Tell me, friend, how am I to know whether Pingalaka will attack me or not?” asked Sanjivaka. “That is easy.” said Damanaka. “It he receives you sitting on his throne, that big slab of stone, with limbs relaxed and with a gracious smile, he means no mischief. But, if you see him with tail curled up, all his paws bunched and ears pricked up and watching you from afar with alert eyes, then you must understand that he has made up his mind to spring on you and finish you off.” Sanjivaka thanked him, and Damanaka left to meet Karataka.

‘What have you accomplished?” asked Karataka, Damanaka replied; “I have set them at odds with each other.” “Have you, really?” said Karataka. “You will presently see the outcome of my efforts,” said Damanaka. “I have snapped the strong friendship between the lion and the bull,” “I am not surprised,” said Karataka, “Even a constant flow of water will wear out a hard rock, and your persistent intrigue must have sapped the friendship. But what is that you hope to gain, by all this elaborate planning and ingenuity?” “What!” said Damanaka, “I shall become the chief Minister and prosper exceedingly. They say that a man who studies books and yet does not make use of his learning for becoming rich and powerful learns in vain, and that his books are only a mental strain to him.” “But, selfish profit is too low a thing to aim at,” said Karataka. “This body, full of filth and worms, is not such a precious thing that we should cater to it at all costs. Besides, your duplicity may end in your death as in the story of “The Humbug’s Fate“.

“What is that story?” asked Damanaka. Karataka told him the story. Then he said, “dont proceed further with this dangerous intrigue.” “Nonsense!” said Damanaka. “A ton of your theory is not worth an ounce of my practice. Why, my dear fellow, even the carcass of that dead bull-I already see him dead – will feed us for many a month. But, keep all this a secret, even as Smart, the jackal, did, till the object was accomplished.” “What is that story?” asked Karataka, and Damanaka narrated the story of “The cunning jackal“. When Damanaka had gone, Sanjivaka said to himself: “What am I to do now? Shall I go elsewhere? No, that will be useless. Some other merciless creature, like the tiger or leopard, will attack me and finish me off. This is a wild forest. There is no safety anywhere in it, now that the lion has become my enemy. My best course, there fore, will be to approach the lion and beg of him to spare my life.” So, he went towards where Pingalaka was seated. He saw him with his tail raised, paws bunched, eyes alert, just as Damanaka had warned, and so even from a distance, put out his horns as if for a fight. Pingalaka perceived in him just the signs that Damanaka had warned him against and made a sudden spring on him and tore at his body with his formidable claws. Though Sanjivaka was wounded, he succeeded in goring the belly of Pingalaka with his horns and get away from him to a short distance. He stood there in a fighting posture ready to gore again.

Karataka saw both of them ready to fight once more and intent on killing each other. He rebuked Damanaka and said to him, ‘You fool, you have done a wicked thing by making these erstwhile friends enemies. You have brought trouble and confusion into this peaceful forest. You are no statesman. You are simply a pretender to statecraft. A true statesman tries fair words, gifts and intrigue in succession before resorting to war. You have put the last thing first and brought our master into danger. You think you are learned. What is the use of learning if it does not make persons less selfish, less passionate, more loving, more self-control led and more virtuous? All other learning is only a vain straining after name and fame. Without thinking of our master’s resources and determining the place and time and counter-measures for mischance, you have brought about this fight and landed our master in peril. You fool, it would have been easy to secure your object without bringing our master to danger. By warning the bull and making him fight you have brought our master to peril. People like you can destroy things but can never construct things. You are like a rat which can eat paddy and foul it but cannot grow it. Sunlight makes others see but makes the owl only blind. So too your learning. How can a man like you help our master? You would not even like him to consult others, and you want to be the sole counsellor, forgetting that the sea shines because of its many waves, and a king shines because of his many courtiers and counsellors. You are not even modest as a good counsellor should be. You are vain and shallow.

I pity our master for acting on the advice of fools like you. Of course, it is also partly our master’s fault. In listening to a person like you, ha ignored all the six expedients and the four devices for attaining success. Foolish kings are satisfied with flatterers like you. Their prosperity and glory depart. What is the use of giving advice to a fool like you. Good advice is thrown away upon you as on the stupid monkey in the story.” “What is the story?” asked Damanaka, and Karataka told him the story of “Unwanted Advice“. After narrating it he said to Damanaka: “What is the use of educating a fool? Education imparted to him will be as useless as light hidden in a tightly sealed jar. But, why blame you? You are born like that. Your nature is like that. You are like Dushtabuddhi in the story.” “What is that story ?” asked Damanaka, and Karataka told him the story of ”Villainy Comes Home to Roost” After telling him that story, Karataka continued: ‘‘You fool, by your thoughtless action you have not only imperiled your own future, but the future of our entire family, including me. But, what else can be expected from a fool like you? Rivers end only in the salty sea. Quarreling women break up a joint family. Traitors but reveal vital secrets or open fortress gates and a wicked son brings a long-lived glorious dynasty to an end. What else can we expect from a person like you, inciting both the lion and t he bull? Where the. tongue is double, you may be sure that there will be trouble, just as a snake with a forked tongue always brings trouble. A fire will burn though it is kindled in fragrant sandalwood. A fool will be a fool though born in a wise family. Such is your folly that even the story of the mice eating iron can be believed.” “What is that story?” asked Damanaka and Karataka narrated the story of “When Mice Ate Iron” After narrating the story, Karataka continued? “You did all this because you could not bear to see the favour bestowed on Sanjivaka by Pingalaka. No wonder they say that envy is a potent source of evil in this world. Cowards hate heroes, low-born fellows hate men of birth, misers hate generous people, paramours hate the husbands, dishonest rogues hate honest men, cripples hate healthy men, unlucky fellows hate lucky ones and fools hate wise men. But what is the use of my telling you all this? Instruction does good only to those who can grasp it. But you are like a stone or a piece of wood, brainless and uneducable. Indeed, living with a fool like you brings danger, just as a foul smelling thing transmits its foul smell even to a fragrant thing beside it. There is much truth in story about two birds which were brought up by a saint and a hunter respectively and became radically different in character and outlook.” “What is that story?” asked Damanaka. Then Karataka narrated to him the story of “Upbringing determines Character.” 

Rivers end only in the salty sea. Quarreling women break up a joint family. Traitors but reveal vital secrets or open fortress gates and a wicked son brings a long-lived glorious dynasty to an end. What else can we expect from a person like you, inciting both the lion and t he bull? Where the. tongue is double, you may be sure that there will be trouble, just as a snake with a forked tongue always brings trouble. A fire will burn though it is kindled in fragrant sandalwood. A fool will be a fool though born in a wise family.

Karataka in Mitrabheda, Panchatantra

After narrating the story Karataka went on: “Your defense is that you did all this as a friend of the lion. But, let me tell you, a wise foe is better than a foolish friend, as in the story of how the robber died for his victims and the monkey killed his friend, the king.” “How was that?” asked Damanaka. Karataka narrated the story of “Wise Foe Better Than Foolish Friend“. After narrating it, he said to Damanaka, “It is far better for the lion to have a wise foe than a foolish friend like you. Remember, wrong is wrong, wherever it is found, and right is right wherever it is found. Men do not drink gutter water even when afflicted with thirst. But the judgment of politicians, like you, is perverted. The firefly seems to be fire, the sky looks flat, the true appears to be false, and the false appears to be true, all because selfish personal profit is the sole guide. Let masters learn a lesson from your act and consult a number of experienced counsellors instead of listening only to one and that one motivated by selfish considerations”. Damanaka shrugged his shoulders and walked away from his elder brother with a cynical smile, unconvinced.

Pingalaka and Sanjivaka renewed their fight, blinded by rage. Ultimately, Pingalaka killed Sanjivaka, though he also sustained some minor injuries. After he bad killed Sanjivaka, Pingalaka, on viewing the gory corpse of his erstwhile friend, was swept by a wave of pity. He exclaimed to himself, “Ah, me! What have I done! He was my alter ego and best friend. In killing him I have half killed myself.” Damanaka went to him and said: “Master, why are you sorry? A king must kill his enemies be he father, brother, son or friend. A feeble king, a weak magistrate, an immoral wife, a false friend and an impudent servant should be got rid of as early as possible. Kings cannot follow the standard of morality of ordinary men. What is a vice in other men will often be a virtue in a King. A King must be true and false, harsh and gentle, cruel and kind, generous and avaricious, spending lavishly and saving carefully, as policy requires. You did well in killing Sanjivaka who sought to usurp your throne.” After having been thus consoled by Damanaka Pingalaka recovered his composure and continued his sovereignty over the forest as before, with Damanaka as his Minister.

A king must kill his enemies be he father, brother, son or friend. A feeble king, a weak magistrate, an immoral wife, a false friend and an impudent servant should be got rid of as early as possible. Kings cannot follow the standard of morality of ordinary men. What is a vice in other men will often be a virtue in a King. A King must be true and false, harsh and gentle, cruel and kind, generous and avaricious, spending lavishly and saving carefully, as policy requires.

Damanaka in Mitrabheda, Panchatantra


This is the end of part-1 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Mitrabheda’ or ‘The separation of friends’.

The Panchatantra – Mitrasamprapti

The Panchatantra – Mitrasamprapti

[This is the beginning of Part-2 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Mitrasamprapti’ or ‘The Acquisition of Friends’.]

In a mighty forest near the city of Mahilaroopya (Mylapore, now a suburb of Madras) in the South, there was a gigantic banyan tree with loads of fruits feeding multitudes of birds, and a spacious shade capable of harboring any number of travelers. It had many feeders and covered a large area. Its leaves were interspersed with nests of various birds, its branches were occupied by troops of monkeys, its hollows were filled with worms of different kinds, the honey of its flowers was drunk by swarms of bees, and its shape afforded protection to countless men and beasts. Its every limb was so useful to so many creatures that any other tree could in comparison with it be considered only as a burden to mother earth. 

In that tree lived the crow Laghupathanaka(The name means ‘A person of short flights’ – A crow prefers to fly like that) One morning, when he was going to Mahilaroopya in search of food, he saw a hunter, black in color, splayfooted with erect hair, and cruel look and with a net in his band,. Seeing him, the crow said to himself, ‘This wicked wretch is surely going to my banyan tree to catch the birds who live there. His marching in that direction shows that. I do not know whether the poor things will escape destruction. I must do something to avert this calamity’.

He forth with retraced his steps and returned to his banyan tree and told all the birds, ‘A wicked hunter is coming herewith net and rice. You should never trust him or be tempted by the rice which he offers. He will spread his net and scatter his rice. All of you should avoid that rice as you would avoid the deadliest of poisons.’ The hunter reached the banyan tree, spread his net underneath it, and scattered his tempting rice. Then he went to some distance and watched the net from a hiding place. All the birds of the tree, having been forewarned by the crow, avoided the rice like poison and concealed themselves. But soon a pigeon King called Chitragriva came along with his thousand followers in search of food. They sighted the rice from afar and flew towards it. The crow warned them of the danger, but in vain. Moved by greed of tongue, the pigeons swooped on the rice and were caught in the net. Verily, sudden and unexpected death, like the death which overtakes the fish in the waters, befalls those who are greedy of tongue, those who live in the midst of water, and those who are totally ignorant. But the pigeons were not wholly to blame. 

All humanity is like that. Why did not the otherwise religious Ravana (Ravana, the king of Lanka carried away Sita, the wife of Rama the prince of Ayodhya- The famous epic Ramayana deals with it) realize that it was a deadly sin to carry off another’s wife?” Why did not the divine Rama remember that a golden deer(The golden deer really the demon Mareecha in disguise, Rama was an incarnation of Vishnu and killed Ravana) was an impossibility and therefore find out its illusive nature? Why did the righteous Yudhistira(The eldest of the Pandavas and the model of righteousness. He gambled away his kingdom, wife and liberty. The celebrated epic, the Mahabharata, relates this) bring on himself sudden calamity by gambling with dice? Evidently, man’s intellect fails to perceive the danger lurking in the immediately fascinating act. Or, it may be that the intellects of even the great are affected by Fate and go astray when death or danger has to happen. The hunter saw from his hiding place that the pigeons had been caught securely in the net, and, with a joyous heart, rushed to the spot with an upraised stick for killing the birds. 

Chitragriva, on seeing himself and his people caught by the wiles of the hunter, told his followers, ‘Do not yield to despondency. That man whose mind does not desert him in calamity succeeds in surmounting it. Before the hunter reaches us, let us all with one united effort suddenly rise up into the air with the net and get out of sight of this wicked wretch. Then we shall be assured of safety, if not, if we get ourselves merely confounded and despondent and pull in different directions, and do not do as I suggest, death will overtake us all, as in the story of the “The Two headed Bird“. In unity and mutual co-operation is our hope. Even thin fibers, when joined together, become a powerful rope and withstand many mighty pulls. So too, the joint effort of the good will withstand any adversity.’ All the doves did as their King directed and flew up in the air with the net. The hunter ran along the ground following the net and said to himself, ‘ But they will surely quarrel among themselves soon, and then they and my net will together fall to the ground.’ 

Laghupathanaka left off his search for food and, impelled by curiosity, followed the net. Soon, the birds flew with the net to such a distance that the hunter could not see it any more. Disappointed and chagrined, he said to himself, ‘That which is not destined to happen will not happen, and that which is destined to happen will happen even without effort. That which is not destined to live will perish even if placed on the palm of the hand and continuously watched. When Fate is adverse, one may sometimes get some wealth with very great effort as I got these birds. But, it is sure to go away suddenly taking away something more as these birds have done my net. Desirous of catching these birds, I have lost the net which was supporting my family. There is no use pursuing them any more’ and he desisted from the pursuit. 

Chitragriva said to his followers as soon as he knew that the hunter had turned back, ‘That wicked wretch of a hunter has desisted from the pursuit and returned. So let us all go without fear to a place to the north of Mahilaroopya where my friend, the mouse Hiranyaka, lives. He will surely snap all our bonds and set us free. In calamity, none but a friend will help us even with consoling words.’ Led by Chitragriva, the pigeons reached the fort-like hole of Hiranyaka which had a thousand exits and afforded absolute protection from danger. Here Hiranyaka lived without fear from any quarter. Well has it been said, ‘A snake without fangs, an elephant not in ruts, and a King without a fort are all easily conquered. That thing which Kings accomplish in battle with a single fort cannot be accomplished by a thousand elephants and a hundred-thousand horses. A single archer in a fort is equal to a hundred archers outside it. Hence it is that politicians praise forts.


The pigeon King stood at the mouth of the hole and cried out in a loud voice, ‘ Friend, Hiranyaka, come quick. A great calamity has overtaken me.’ Hearing this, Hiranyaka said from inside the hole ‘ Who are you ? Why have you come here ? What kind of calamity has overtaken you ? State everything in detail.’ Chitragriva said, ‘I am your friend Chitragriva, the pigeon king. So come quick. Your help is needed urgently by me.’ Hearing this, the mouse came out of his hole in great joy at the prospect of meeting his friend. Affectionate friends always crowd the house of the magnanimous householder. The joy of the host to whose house they resort cannot be paralleled even in heaven. Hiranyaka saw Chitragriva and his followers in bonds and asked with grief, ‘ What is this ?’ Chitragriva said, ‘Why do you ask ? Surely you ought to know. Is it not said that by the power of Fate one does all kinds of things dictated by the acts done in the previous birth ? This particular calamity came to us from our greediness of tongue. Please release us from our bondage without delay. 

Hiranyaka said, ‘A bird sights food even from a hundred miles, but the same bird does not unfortunately see even the net under its very nose. But having seen even the powerful sun and moon caught by Rahu(The reference is to eclipses. In Hindu Puranas, they were said to be brought about by the demon Rahu swallowing the Sun and the Moon), and having seen the mighty elephants, the venomous snakes, and the birds of the air confined by men, and having seen men of genius pine away in poverty, I have realized the inevitability of Fate. The birds sporting in the solitude of the sky come to grief ; the fish are caught even from the depths of the ocean by expert fishermen; what, then, is the difference in this world of leading a virtuous or vicious life, and what is the use of choosing a particular place to live in, seeing that death with its outstretched hands seizes all creatures even from afar at the appointed time ?’ Then the mouse began to bite the bonds of Chitragriva.

The pigeon King said, ‘ Friend, begin not with me. Finish with my followers before you come to me.’ Hiranyaka said in anger, ‘ What you talk is rot. First comes the master, then his servants.’ Chitragriva said, ‘ Friend, don’t say so. These are dependent on me and are poor fellows who have left their families to follow me. Am I not to show them in return at least this much consideration? Servants never desert that King who shows great consideration for them even though he may be poor. Confidence is the root of prosperity,. That is why the big tusker is trusted by the herd and made the leader. Besides, your teeth may be broken by constant biting of these bonds. Or, the hunter even may come here before you have finished biting the bonds of all my followers if you begin with me. Then, surely I shall go to hell. That leader who is happy while his righteous followers are in misery suffers pain in this world and goes to hell in the next’.

Hiranyaka said ‘ Friend, I too know the duties of Kings. I merely wanted to test you. You have stood the test well and deserve to be the King of thousands more of pigeons.’ A King who is compassionate and considerate towards his servants can rule the three worlds. I shall now release your followers from their bonds.’ Having done this, he snapped the the bonds of Chitragriva also and said to him, ‘ Friend, now go in peace to your own abode. If calamity overtakes you again, come to me without hesitation.’ Then he entered his hole again. Chitragriva and his followers went back to their dwelling. 

Laghupathanaka saw all this with astonishment and thought ‘Hiranyaka’s goodness and wisdom are equal to his fort in impregnability. I can never trust to combat fickle Fate alone. So, I too will make him my friend. Wise men, even though powerful and wealthy, will always love to make friends. The ocean, though full of water, seeks the help of its friend, the moon, to rise higher still.’ Thinking thus, he went to the hole of Hiranyaka and called out in the voice of Chitragriva ‘Hi, Hiranyaka, Hi.’ Hearing that sound, Hiranyaka thought that he had perhaps by oversight not snapped the bonds of some pigeon and so asked from within his hole ‘ Who are you?’

The crow replied, ‘ I am Laghupathanaka the crow.’ The mouse crept deeper into the hole on hearing this and said, ‘ Get away from my place, quick.’ The crow said, ‘ I have come to you on an important business. Why then do you refuse to see me?’ The mouse replied, ‘Because no good purpose will be served by my mixing with you’. The crow said, ‘I have seen you deliver Chaitragriva and his friends from bondage and have been delighted with it. If I too get caught in some net, I want to be released in like fashion. So I want to make friends with you.’ The mouse replied, ‘You are the eater and I am the food. How then can you and I be friends? Friendship and marriage can take place only between those whose birth and wealth are equal and not between, those who are rich and poor or powerful and weak. That fool who makes friends with those who are higher or lower than himself ends by becoming the ridicule of the world. So get away from here.’ 

Friendship and marriage can take place only between those whose birth and wealth are equal and not between, those who are rich and poor or powerful and weak. That fool who makes friends with those who are higher or lower than himself ends by becoming the ridicule of the world.

Hiranyaka the mouse in Mitrasampati, Panchatantra

The crow said, ‘If you do not come out and make friends with me, I shall remain at the mouth of your hole and starve myself to death.’ Hiranyaka said, ‘How unreasonable you are I How can I make friends with one who is my natural enemy ? Is it not said that one should not make friends with an enemy though he is keen on it and appears to be of like nature? Water, though boiling hot, will yet extinguish fire.’ The crow said, ‘ How unreasonable you are! You have not seen me and yet say that I am your natural enemy.’ Hiranyaka said’ There are two kinds of enemies, the one who is born an enemy and the one who becomes an enemy for some cause, or other. You are my born enemy’. An enmity generated by some cause or other in the ordinary intercourse of life can be overcome by clever means whereas an enmity by birth cannot be ended without the death of one party.

The crow said, ‘Kindly tell me how to distinguish these two types of enemies.’ The mouse replied, ‘an enmity by association is brought about by some cause or other and is removed by the removal of that cause. The natural enmity is that between the mongoose and the snake, the herbivorous animals and the carnivorous ones, water and fire, the rich and the poor, the lion and the elephant, the hunter and the deer, the Brahmin learned in the Vedas and the atheist, the wise and the foolish, chaste women and adulteresses, the good and the wicked, and the gods and demons. None of these classes have succeeded in exterminating the other class. Still, their life is one long fight against their opponents and their mind is full of sorrow at not having exterminated them. This kind of enmity can never be eradicated’.

The crow said, ‘It is a most unreasonable kind of enmity. One becomes another’s friend or enemy from some cause or other. A wise man should form new friendships and not nurse old enmities. So form a friendship with me. Hiranyaka said, ‘The great authors of the Sastras have said, “He who makes friends with one who is not like unto him meets with death even as the ass mating with the horse gives birth to the barren mule and has his line extinguished forever”. It may be that you are good and intend to do no harm to me, but no good can come of such friendships. Nature will assert itself at last. It may be said that I, being virtuous, cannot come to grief by anybody’s enmity. But a lion took away the life of Panini(The most celebrated of Sanskrit grammarians. He lived in the 7th century BC and was a native of Salatura near Attock in the North West Frontier Provinces. Lions were fairly common in North India in ancient times) the grammarian, an elephant killed Jaimini(A pupil of Vyasa and the teacher of the Sama Veda) the philosopher, an alligator tore to pieces Pingala the Vedic scholar; these instances will show that neither virtue nor accomplishment will be a protection against the lower animals who are passionate and sunk in ignorance and cannot appreciate merit or virtue’. 

The crow said, ‘What you say is true. But listen to me. Friendship is formed among men by reason of obligations mutually conferred, among beasts and birds with some motive, among fools through fear or greed, and among the good at the very first sight. I am a virtuous soul. I also swear unto you that I shall do no harm whatever to you.’ The mouse replied, ‘I have no faith in your oaths. No confidence should be placed in an enemy though he has sworn several oaths. Indra killed the demon Vritra after a terrible oath not to kill him. Even the gods themselves cannot kill an enemy unless he is foolish enough to put faith in them, Indra destroyed the fetus of Diti, the mother of demons, when she had put her faith in him ; therefore even a man wiser than Brihaspati(The preceptor of the gods and proverbial for his wisdom) should never have faith in an enemy if he desires his own prosperity, life and happiness. An enemy will in the course of friendship find some tiny loophole or other in us and destroy us gradually like water entering a boat through a small hole and sinking it altogether finally. Neither a worthy nor an unworthy man should be trusted too much, for he may destroy us root and branch one day. Even a weak person is not destroyed by his powerful opponent unless he trusts him. The most powerful are destroyed by the weak once they put faith in them. 

The crow was impressed by these arguments and could not readily reply to them. He thought to himself, ‘How clever is this mouse in politics. My inclination to strike a friendship with him grows even greater.’ He said to him, ‘Oh, Hiranyaka, the wise say that friendship is formed even by walking seven steps together. How much more so by having had this long conversation ? So you have already become my friend even against your will. Listen to me. Even though you distrust me and keep to your hole and never come out, you and I can have such delightful discussions on virtues and vices every day.’ Hearing this, Hiranyaka thought, ‘This crow appears to be a clever one, and he has spoken the truth. He deserves to be made a friend. But he should not be allowed to set foot in my hole. An enemy being afraid at first, approaches with slow steps and then rushes forward taking undue advantage as does the arm of the paramour on a woman not yet conquered.’ He said to the crow, ‘So be it, O crow But you are never to come inside my hole.’ The crow readily agreed. 

From that day onwards they met together daily and enjoyed delightful discussions. They also conferred obligations on each other. The crow used to take to the mouse pieces of meat, remains of sacrifices and grains of cooked rice. The mouse in his turn used to give the crow the grains of raw rice and other dainties secured by him during the night. The friendship of the two agreed well with both owing to these mutual returns. It has been said – ‘Sixfold is the way of exhibiting friendships, namely, giving something, taking something in return, confiding a secret, asking for a secret, eating something from the friend, and causing the friend to eat something.

There can never be any real friendship without conferring obligations. Even the gods grant favours only by their being given something as per vows. Affection will last only so long as something is continued to be given, Even the calf of a cow will leave its mother as soon as she gets no more milk from her. A gift will make even an enemy friend in no time. With beasts, the love of making gifts is even greater than love for the offspring. The she-buffalo gives the whole of her milk even to a wicked person though her calf might be alive.’ The mouse and the crow, though naturally enemies, became inseparable friends like the nail and the flesh. Daily they used to meet and hold friendly discussions. 

Then, one day, the crow went to the mouse and, with tears in his eyes and a faltering tone, said, ‘Oh, Hiranyaka, the time has come for our separation. I have to leave this country and go elsewhere.’ Hiranyaka asked, ‘Why ?’. The crow replied, ‘There is a terrible drought in this country. The people are all starving and do not offer sacrifices from which alone I used to get my best food. People are catching all kinds of birds for eating in order to somehow fill their bellies. In every house I see only these miserable captive birds. My heart bleeds for them. I too was caught hold of, but somehow managed to escape. That is the reason for my resolve to leave this country.’ 

Hiranyaka said, ‘Where do you intend to go ?’ The crow replied, ‘There is in the South a big lake in the midst of a dense forest. I have got there a tortoise friend called Mantharaka(The name means ‘The Slow One’) who is dearer to me than even you. He will give me pieces of fish meat. I shall pass my time merrily with him eating them and having friendly discussions. I do not wish to remain here and see the race of birds undergo bondage and death. You may consider the journey an arduous and difficult one and may think it inadvisable to go to a distant foreign country. But, what task is too difficult for the able, what is distance to the persevering, what country is foreign to a learned man, who is a stranger to him who can talk sweetly ? Learning and Royalty can never be equal. A King is respected only in his own kingdom while a learned man is respected everywhere. When a country is stricken by famine and when the crops are all withered away, blessed indeed are they who do not remain there to see their families perish and their country go to ruin.’ Hiranyaka said, ‘If that is so, I too shall come with you. I also will come to grief if I continue here.’ The crow asked, ‘How so?’ Hiranyaka replied, ‘It is a long story. I shall tell it at length after we reach the lake.’

The crow said, ‘I am a bird of the sky, and you are a beast of the land. How then can you and I march together ?’ The mouse replied ‘If you want to save my life, you can take me on your back and fly with me to the lake. There is no other way.’ The crow said, ‘I shall gladly do so. I am indeed lucky, for my life at the lake will be even more merry with you too to keep company. 1 know the various modes of flight, how to fly up and fly down, to fly straight and to fly crooked, to fly at a stretch and to fly in stages. So get on my back, and I shall take you safely to the lake.’ Hiranyaka got upon the crow’s back, and the crow flew with him gently and comfortably to the lake. Seeing the crow approach with the mouse on his back, Mantharaka, who was very prudent and cautious, said to himself, ‘Here comes a most extraordinary crow. I had better keep away’ and dived into the water. 

The crow left the mouse in a hole at the root ‘of a tree on the bank and, perching on the end of a big branch, cried out loudly, ‘Mantharaka, come quick. I am your friend Laghupathanaka and have arrived here in great anxiety. So, come and embrace me quick. Sandal mixed with camphor and ice is not half so cool and refreshing as the loving embrace of a friend.’ Hearing this, the’ tortoise, with tears in his eyes and a palpitating heart, came to the bank and said, ‘Friend, embrace me, I could not recognize you since we have not met for a long time and you have changed much in the interval. That is why I entered the water. Has not Brihaspati said, “One should not form a friendship with him whose valour, actions and family are not known The crow then got down from the tree and embraced the tortoise, It has been said, ‘Even nectar itself is not half sweet as the loving embrace of a friend after long separation’, 

The two friends remained at the bottom of the tree engaged in loving conversation about their adventures after they left each other. Hiranyaka went and prostrated to Mantharaka and sat near the crow. The tortoise asked the crow, ‘Who is this mouse ? Why did you carry him on your back when he ought to have been in your belly, being your natural food ? There must be some extraordinary motive for this.’ The crow replied, ‘This is Hiranyaka the mouse, my steadfast friend whom I love like myself. The virtues of this great soul are as innumerable as the sands of the sea, the drops of rain, and the stars of the sky. Being now greatly dejected, he has come to you’.

Mantharaka asked, ‘What is the cause of his dejection ?’ The crow replied, ‘Questioned by me he said that it was a long tale and that he would relate it at length after reaching this lake. So, I too have not heard about it. Friend, Hiranyaka’ said he turning to the mouse, ‘Tell us both your story and the cause of your dejection. Then Hiranyaka narrated his story. The three friends, the crow, the tortoise and the mouse, lived happily on the banks of the lake feasting and sporting at will. One day, when they were engaged in friendly conversation, a deer called Chitranga(The name means, ‘One of charming limbs’) rushed into the lake in great haste like one pursued by hunters Apprehending danger from hunters who might be pursuing him, the tortoise at once leapt into the water, the mouse entered his hole and the crow flew up the nearest tree. 

After keen scrutiny, the crow found that nobody was in sight. He also saw the deer drinking the water greedily. So he called his friends again and said to the tortoise ‘Mantharaka, this deer is not pursued by any hunter. He has come here only from excess of thirst. So our fears were groundless.’ Mantharaka replied after great deliberation, ‘ Friend, you are wrong. The very appearance of the animal shows that he must have been pursued by hunters. He was looking back now and then even in the course of his precipitate flight here, and his heart is palpitating at such a pace that mere thirst would not account for it. Only he who is frightened breathes heavily, looks about him often and often, and is never serene.’ Then, turning to Chitranga. he said, ‘Friend, tell me whether I am right.’ Chitranga replied, ‘ Mantharaka, you have correctly guessed the cause of my fright. A number of hunters followed me and I narrowly escaped from their arrows. My whole herd has been caught and slain by those wicked wretches. I seek asylum with you. Please allow me to remain here. Befriend me and save me from the hunters.’ 

Mantharaka said, ‘ Oh deer, you are welcome to remain here and to share whatever we have got. There are two means of escape from enemies, one by the power of the feet and the other by the power of the arms. You can rely on us for both. Let us go away speedily to the dense jungle before the hunters come here.’ The crow watched from the tree and said, ‘ The hunters are returning to their tents, and there is no danger now. So all of us four can quietly enjoy binder the delightful shade of this big tree in this hot noontime.” The deer Chitranga said that he was anxious to make friends with the crow, the mouse and the tortoise, Mantharaka asked him, ” What use will our friendship be to you? We are such small folk,” Chitranga said. “Even the humblest of beings, as friends, can render vital help to the mighty, as the story of “Mice Free Elephants” will show. “Mantharaka requested him to narrate that story, and Chitranga narrated it. The four then lived together on the banks of the lake in great joy.

Another day in the cool of the evening, at the usual time of their friendly discussions, Chitranga was missed. The other three said to one another, ‘ Where is he? Has he been killed by some lion, or by some wicked hunter, or has he perished in a forest fire, or fallen into an abyss going after some tempting grass ?’ Then Mantharaka said to the crow, ‘I and the mouse cannot search for him. effectively owing to our slow progression. So you please go and search for him all through this forest to see if he is still alive.’ Laghupathanaka went out accordingly. Not far from the lake he found him caught in a snare. 

Filled with grief, he asked, ‘ Friend, what is this?’ The deer burst into tears at the sight his friend, for grief always increases at the sight of a dear friend. He then replied, ‘My days are ended. I am very glad to see you at this time. When life is drawing to an end it is always good to see a friend whether the person lives or dies thereafter. Forgive me for whatever harsh words I might have spoken to you in the course of our conversations. Take Hiranyaka and Mantharaka this message from me, “Friends, both of you should forgive me for whatever bad words I might have uttered to you consciously or unconsciously”.’ The crow said, ‘Friend, there is no need for despair when there are friends like us to help you. I shall fetch Hiranyaka at once and he will snap your bonds in no time with his powerful teeth’.

Consoling Chitranga thus, the crow went to the tortoise and mouse and told them how the deer had been caught in a snare. The crow took Hiranyaka on his back and flew with him at once to the deer. Chitranga’s hope of escape was roused by the sight of the mouse and he said, ‘Such friends like you should be made by a wise man if he is to be served by them in adversity.’ Hiranyaka ‘said, ‘Friend, you seem to be well versed in worldly wisdom. How then did you fall into this snare?’ Chitranga said, “This is not the first time I fall into a snare. I fell into it once before but was ultimately free.” Tell us that story,” said Hiranyaka.

Chitranga said, ‘This is no time for it. The wicked hunter may come at any time. Please snap my bonds at once’. Hiranyaka said smiling, ‘There is no need to fear the hunter while I am near by. I consider myself to be learned in the Sastras, and you too appear to be equally learned. That is why I ask of you.’ Chitranga replied, ‘ Friend, you know well that even the intellect of the wise is overpowered by Fate. The greatest intellects deviate from the right path by Fate’s decree. Great scholars who write volumes and volumes and cancel several volumes of their own writing are not able to cancel one letter written on their foreheads by Fate.’ Then the deer narrated the story of his former captivity

While they were talking thus, Mantharaka being anxious as to why his friend hd not returned, reached the spot slowly. Seeing him from afar, the crow said to the mouse, ‘ It is not good that he should have come here.’ The mouse asked, ‘What! Is the hunter coming?’ The crow said. ‘ No. But Mantharaka is coming, having been rendered anxious by the delay caused by your untimely discussions. He has acted imprudently in coming here. Should the hunter come, I can fly up into the sky, you can rush into any hole, and the deer can flee afar. But I do not know how this water-animal will fare on land and am grieved to think of it.’ By that time Mantharaka reached the spot. The mouse said to him, ‘ You should never have come here. Rush back as speedily as you can before the wicked hunter comes.’ Mantharaka said, ‘Friend, what could I do ? I could not bear the burning anxiety caused by our friend Chitranga’s captivity and your extraordinary delay in returning. There is nothing so powerful as anxiety for dear friends. If there be no such friends, who can put up with the death of his beloved ones and the loss of his wealth?’.

While they were talking thus, the crow descried the hunter coming with his bow strung and his arrow at his ear ready for discharging. He immediately raised an alarm. The mouse at once snapped the bonds of the deer, and Chitranga took to a precipitate flight looking behind him now and then. The crow flew up a tree, and the mouse ran into a neighbouring hole. Then the hunter, chagrined and disappointed at the escape of the deer, saw to his delight the plump tortoise walking along the ground slowly and said to himself, ‘If the wretched deer escaped, this plump tortoise will be a very good substitute and will give me and mine a good meal.’ He caught the tortoise and tied him with darbha(A long and strong grass used for making ropes) grass to his bow and started for home. 

Seeing the tortoise being taken away, the mouse was filled with grief and said. Oh what a calamity has befallen us ! Before I have got over one calamity another has befallen me, like a traveler crossing one sea with difficulty only to see another beyond it. Verily, misfortunes never come single. First, all my hoarded provisions were robbed ; then, when I had got -over it, my dear friend Chitranga was ensnared; and when I had just got over it, my dearest of all friends Mantharaka is taken captive and carried away. Friends alone can give those three inestimable benefits, service in adversity, confiding of secrets, and insurance against calamity. Why does Fate persecute me with so many calamities one after the other? First, loss of wealth, then exile, then separation from friends. But, after all, is not the life of every created being like this ? Calamity is near at hand for every being born. Wealth is the abode of misery, and the joy of meeting with friends and relatives is eclipsed by the grief of separating from them. Everything is transitory. Repeated blows fall on a wound, hunger increases when the means of appeasing it are gone, and enemies multiply in adversity. Surely, misfortunes never come single’.

Meanwhile, Chitranga and the crow came to the spot and cried aloud in grief. The mouse said to them, ‘What is the use of this vain grief ? Before Mantharaka is out of our sight, let us devise some means of rescuing him. He who foolishly laments when calamity overtakes him only increases the grief and never finds out a remedy. The only wise course in a calamity is to give up feeling sorry for it and to devise measures to end it. The best course for a man is to keep the gains already secured, secure further gains and to rescue his friends from the calamities which have overtaken them.’ 

Hearing this, the crow said, ‘I have an idea. You know that there is a tank by the side of the hunter’s route home. He will reach that spot in a few minutes. Let Chitranga run there by a short cut and lie on the bund of that tank motionless like one dead. I shall take you on my back there and leave you on the bund. Then I shall perch on Chitranga’s head and pretend to be pecking at him. The hunter will see all this and will be convinced by my pecking that the deer is dead. He will leave the bow with the tortoise on the bund at some distance from us and rush after the deer. Meanwhile, you are to snap the darbha grass by which Mantharaka is bound. And Mantharaka, thus set free, is to leap into the tank forthwith. As soon as the hunter comes close to us, I shall perch up a tree and Chitranga will take to headlong flight’. 

Chitranga said, ‘Mantharaka may be considered as already saved. This plan is ‘wonderful. Only a wise one can concoct such a plan acting on the psychology of all with knowledge gained from experience. Let us act upon this plan.’ Then he ran in advance to the bund of the tank and lay there motionless as if he were dead. The crow flew with the mouse and deposited him on the bund. He then settled, on the head of Chitranga pretending to peck at it. Soon the hunter came along. Seeing the deer lying rigid and motionless on the tank bund and the crow pecking at him, he thought to himself, ‘It is clear that the deer was so exhausted by having been ensnared and the consequent starvation that he dropped down dead no sooner than he came here. This tortoise is securely tied, and cannot escape. Let me secure the dead deer also’. Thinking thus, he put the bow with the tortoise on the bund at some distance from the deer and went towards- the spot where the deer was lying.

Hiranyaka at once snapped with his teeth the darbha grass with which the tortoise was bound, and Mantharaka immediately leaped into the tank. As soon as the hunter neared the deer Chitranga ran away at full gallop. The crow too flew up a tree. Then the hunter, disappointed, chagrined and ashamed, turned back to the spot where he had left the tortoise and found him too gone. He cried out in despair, ‘Oh Fate, as soon as this big deer was caught in my snare, you snatched him away. Even the tortoise who was secure in my hand escaped under your orders. I wander in this forest parched with hunger and separated from my wife and children whom I dare not face as I have nothing to give them. Then do your worst. I am ready for whatever you do.’ Grieving like this in various ways, he returned home.

When he was out of sights the crow, the tortoise, the mouse and the deer met together in great joy, embraced one another fervently, returned to their lake and lived there ever after in great happiness with merry dinners and happy discussions. 


This is the end of part-2 of Panchatantra, also called ‘Mitrasamprapti’ or ‘The acquisition of friends’.